Many a head has been lost by catching at a crown. Verses Abiathar and Joab were both aiding and abetting in Adonijah's rebellious attempt, and it is probable were at the bottom of this new motion made of Adonijah for Abishag, and it should seem Solomon knew it, 1 Kings Abiathar, in consideration of his old services, is only degraded, 1 Kings , 1 Kings He calls to mind the respect he had formerly shown to David his father, and that he had both ministered to him in holy things had borne before him the ark of the Lord , and also had tenderly sympathized with him in his afflictions and been afflicted in them all, particularly when he was in exile and distress both by Saul's persecution and Absalom's rebellion.
Note, Those that show kindness to God's people shall have it remembered to their advantage one time or other. For this reason he spares Abiathar's life, but deposes him from his offices, and confines him to his country seat at Anathoth, forbids him the court, the city, the tabernacle, the altar, and all inter-meddling in public business, with an intimation likewise that he was upon his good behaviour, and that though Solomon did not put him to death at this time he might another time, if he did not conduct himself well.
But, for the present, he was only thrust out from being priest, as rendered unworthy that high station by the opposition he had given to that which he knew to be the will of God.
Saul, for a supposed crime, had barbarously slain Abiathar's father, and eighty-five priests, their families, and city. Solomon spares Abiathar himself, though guilty of a real crime. Thus was Saul's government ruined and Solomon's established. As men are to God's ministers, they will find him to them. The depriving of Abiathar was the fulfilling of the threatening against the house of Eli 1 Samuel , for he was the last high priest of that family.
It was now above eighty years since the ruin was threatened; but God's judgments, though not executed speedily, will be executed surely. Joab, in consideration of his old sins, is put to death. His guilty conscience sent him to the horns of the altar.
He heard that Adonijah was executed and Abiathar deposed, and therefore, fearing his turn would be next, he fled for refuge to the altar. Many that, in the day of their security, care not for the service of the altar, will be glad of the protection of it in the day of their distress. Some think Joab designed thereby to devote himself for the future to a constant attendance upon the altar, hoping thereby to obtain his pardon, as some that have lived a dissolute life all their days have thought to atone for their crimes by retiring into a monastery when they are old, leaving the world when it has left them and no thanks to them.
Solomon ordered him to be put to death there for the murder of Abner and Amasa; for these were the crimes upon which he thought fit to ground the sentence, rather than upon his treasonable adherence to Adonijah.
Joab was indeed worthy of death for turning after Adonijah, in contempt of Solomon and his designation to the throne, though he had not turned after Absalom, 1 Kings Former fidelity will not serve to excuse any after treachery; yet, besides that, Joab had merited well of the house of David, to which and to his country he had done a great deal of good service in his day, in consideration of which, it is probable, Solomon would have pardoned him his offence against him for clemency gives great reputation and establishment to an infant government , and would have only displaced him as he did Abiathar; but he must die for the murders he had formerly been guilty of, which his father had charged Solomon to call him to an account for.
The debt he owed to the innocent blood that was shed, by answering its cries with the blood of him that shed, he could not pay himself, but left it to his son to pay it, who, having power wherewithal, failed not to do it. On this he grounds the sentence, aggravating the crime 1 Kings , that he fell upon two men more righteous and better than he, that had done him no wrong nor meant him any, and, had they lived, might probably have done David better service if the blood shed be not only innocent, but excellent, the life more valuable that common lives, the crime is the more heinous , that David knew not of it, and yet the case was such that he would be suspected as privy to it; so that Joab endangered his prince's reputation in taking away the life of his rivals, which was a further aggravation.
For these crimes, 1. He must die, and die by the sword of public justice. By man must his blood be shed, and it lies upon his own head 1 Kings , as theirs does whom he had murdered, 1 Kings Woe to the head that lies under the guilt of blood! Vengeance for murder was long in coming upon Joab; but, when it did come, it remained the longer, being here entailed upon the head of his seed for ever 1 Kings , who, instead of deriving honour, as otherwise they might have done, from his heroic actions, derived guilt, and shame, and a curse, from his villainous actions, on account of which they fared the worse in this world.
The seed of such evil doers shall never be renowned. He must die at the altar, rather than escape. Joab resolved not to stir from the altar 1 Kings , hoping thereby either to secure himself or else to render Solomon odious to the people, as a profaner of the holy place, if he should put him to death there. Benaiah made a scruple of either killing him there or dragging him thence; but Solomon knew the law, that the altar of God should give no protection to wilful murderers. Exodus , Thou shalt take him from my altar that he may die, may die a sacrifice.
In case of such sins as the blood of beasts would atone for the altar was a refuge, but not in Joab's case. He therefore orders him to be executed there, if he could not be got thence, to show that he feared not the censure of the people in doing his duty, but would rectify their mistake, and let them know that the administration of justice is better than sacrifice, and that the holiness of any place should never countenance the wickedness of any person. Those who, by a lively faith, take hold on Christ and his righteousness, with a resolution, if they perish, to perish there, shall find in him a more powerful protection than Joab found at the horns of the altar.
Benaiah slew him 1 Kings , with the solemnity, no doubt, of a public execution. The law being thus satisfied, he was buried in his own house in the wilderness, privately, like a criminal, not pompously, like a soldier; yet no indignity was done to his dead body. It is not for man to lay the iniquity upon the bones, whatever God does.
Solomon pleased himself with this act of justice, not as it gratified any personal revenge, but as it was the fulfilling of his father's orders and a real kindness to himself and his own government. Guilt was hereby removed, 1 Kings By returning the innocent blood that had been shed upon the head of him that shed it, it was taken away from him and from the house of his father, which implies that the blood which is not required from the murderer will be required from the magistrate, at least there is danger lest it should.
Those that would have their houses safe and built up must put away iniquity far from them. Peace was hereby secured 1 Kings upon David. He does not mean his person, but, as he explains himself in the next words, Upon his seed, his house, and his throne, shall there be peace for ever from the Lord; thus he expresses his desire that it may be so and his hope that it shall be so. Now that such a turbulent man as Joab is removed there shall be peace. Take away the wicked from before the king, and his throne shall be established in righteousness, Proverbs Solomon, in this blessing of peace upon his house and throne, piously looks upward to God as the author of it.
The course that was taken with Shimei. He is sent for, by a messenger, from his house at Bahurim, expecting perhaps no better than Adonijah's doom, being conscious of his enmity to the house of David; but Solomon knows how to make a difference of crimes and criminals.
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David had promised Shimei his life for his time. Solomon is not bound by that promise, yet he will not go directly contrary to it. He confines him to Jerusalem, and forbids him, upon any pretence whatsoever, to go out of the city any further than the brook Kidron, 1 Kings , 1 Kings He would suffer him to continue at his country seat lest he should make mischief among his neighbours, but took him to Jerusalem, where he kept him prisoner at large. This might make Shimei's confinement easy to himself, for Jerusalem was beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, the royal city, the holy city he had no reason to complain of being shut up in such a paradise ; it would also make it the more safe for Solomon, for there he would have him under his eye and be able to watch his motions; and he plainly tells him that if he ever go out of the rules he shall certainly die for it.
This was a fair trial of his obedience, and such a test of his loyalty as he had no reason to complain of. He has his life upon easy terms: he shall live if he will but be content to live at Jerusalem. Shimei submits to the confinement, and thankfully takes his life upon those terms.
He enters into recognizance 1 Kings , under the penalty of death, not to stir out of Jerusalem, and owns that the saying is good. Even those that perish cannot but own the conditions of pardon and life unexceptionable, so that their blood, like Shimei's, must rest upon their own heads. Shimei promised, with an oath, to keep within his bounds, 1 Kings Shimei forfeits his recognizance, which was the thing Solomon expected; and God was righteous in suffering him to do it, that he might now suffer for his old sins.
Two of his servants it seems, though he was a prisoner, he lived like himself, well attended ran from him to the land of the Philistines, 1 Kings Thither he pursued them, and thence brought them back to Jerusalem, 1 Kings For the keeping of it private he saddled his ass himself, probably went in the night, and came home he thought undiscovered. How commonly do we see men run out of the bounds set by God's law, to hunt after them, till their souls incur a fearful judgment! Solomon takes the forfeiture.
Information is given him that Shimei has transgressed, 1 Kings The king sends for him, and, 1. Had he represented to Solomon the urgency of the occasion, and begged leave to go, perhaps Solomon might have given him leave; but to presume either upon his ignorance or his connivance was to affront him in the highest degree.
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He condemns him for his former crime, cursing David, and throwing stones at him in the day of his affliction: The wickedness which thy heart is privy to, 1 Kings There was no need to examine witnesses for the proof of the fact, his own conscience was instead of a thousand witnesses. That wickedness which men's own hearts alone are privy to is enough, if duly considered, to fill them with confusion, in expectation of its return upon their own heads; for if the heart be privy to it, God is greater than the heart and knoweth all things. Others knew of Shimei's cursing David, but Shimei himself knew of the wicked principles of hatred and malice against David which he displayed in cursing him and that his submission was but feigned and forced.
He had altered some of the implicit assumptions which had turned out to be precipitate. Instead of stability for the restricted three-body problem, he had come to the inevitable conclusion that chaotic motion could occur, as we would now call the phenomenon. Both sequences approached the same fixed point on the cross section corresponding to the periodic solution in phase space.
He never attempted to make a schematic drawing of it. The full picture in three dimensions really stretches our visual imagination: the two asymptotic surfaces now intersect in infinitely many intertwined homoclinic curves trajectories. In a finite region of phase space, an infinite number of tiny stretched-and-folded volumes enclosed by small pieces of the inset and the outset surfaces separate different kinds of orbits. In the proof, he now inspected four possible forms of the curve, three of which could be excluded, so that the only remaining case was for the curve to intersect itself.
He had failed to see this alternative in the first version. There he had also made drawings for two of the cases, and he retained them in the revised memoir. But he probably never had time to add a picture of the correct self-intersecting curve for a drawing see Barrow-Green [, Figure 5. The series were expanded in powers of the small but finite mass of one of the two primary bodies. In the first version he had tacitly generalized an argument of convergence for these series to all types of Hamiltonian systems. Instead such series were of a type that he had studied earlier and called asymptotic series: not convergent but still of great value in approximations.
Here was a link to the world of the astronomers. In articles between and he gave a proof of the convergence of an infinite series solution to the three-body problem for almost all initial values, using well-known results. Included below is also the final published memoir.
Until we thought that this manuscript was lost, but by a lucky coincidence it turned up again. The pen was probably held by his wife Louise, who often served as his private secretary. Also the figures are certainly drawn by him. The added appendices notes must have been incorporated later. Editorial markings in pencil indicate that this manuscript was sent to the printers. The revised manuscript forms the basis of the printed official version.
The order follows the handwritten page numbers in blue colour. Pages seem to be missing.